Professional and Alumni

Guidelines for Authors

Guidelines for Authors
according to the
Publication Manual
of the American Psychological Association
Fifth Edition

Order of References in the Reference List

  • Alphabetize letter by letter - Brown precedes Browning.
  • Alphabetize the prefixes literally - MacDowell precedes McDowell.
  • Order same author with the earliest date first:
    • Brown, L. S. (1996).
    • Brown, L. S. (1999).
  • Order one-author entries before multiple-author entries:
    • Allen, L. J. (2001).
    • Allen, L. J, & Brown, J. G. (1999).
  • Order references by the same author in a year as follows:
    • Green, T. L. (1999a).
    • Green, T. L. (1999b).

General Forms - (note punctuation, spacing, capitalization, and italics.)

  • Periodical

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author C. C. (1994). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx.

  • Nonperiodical

Author, A. A. (1994). Title of work. Location: Publisher.

  • Part of nonperiodical

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1994). Title of chapter. In A. Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.

  • Online periodical

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000, May). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source (e.g., from

  • Online document

Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source.

  • Article, no author

The new health care lexicon. (1993, August/September). Health Care Newsletter, x, xx-xx. (This would be alphabetized with the first significant word, new.)

  • Newspaper, no author

New drug appears. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12

  • Citation (within text) of a work discussed in a secondary source

Abington and McCarthy study (as cited in Brown, Green, & White, 1993)

  • Citation for above (within reference list)

Brown, B., Green, A. W., & White, A. M. (1993). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, x-xx.

  • Document available on organization Web site

Mitstifer, D. I. (n.d.). Kappa Omicron Nu: Making a learning community. Retrieved November 19, 2000, from Kappa Omicron Nu Web site:

Manuscript Preparation

  • Author's responsibilities - proofread the manuscript and prepare a cover letter to accompany the submitted manuscript.
  • Paper - print on one side only of 8 1/2 x 11 paper.
  • Typeface - 12-pt Times Roman or 12-pt Courier (serif typeface is preferred because it improves readability.
  • Double-spacing - this aids readability and editing.
  • Margins - leave at least 1 in. at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page.
  • Order of pages - title page, abstract, text, references, appendixes, author note, footnotes, tables, figure captions, figures.
  • Page numbers and headers - use a running title (partial title) and page number on each page, flush right.
  • Paragraphs and Indentation - indent the first line of every paragraph about 1/2 inch.
  • Headings - three levels
    • Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
    • Flush left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
    • Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.
  • Spacing and punctuation - space once after all punctuation as follows:
    • After commas, colons, and semicolons
    • After punctuation marks at the ends of sentences
    • After periods that separate parts of a reference citation
    • After the periods of the initials in personal names
    • Do not space after internal periods in abbreviations (e.g., a.m., i.e., U.S.)
  • Seriation
    • Seriation within a paragraph or sentence, use lowercase letters (not italicized) in parenthesis - xxxxxxxxx (a) xxxxxxxxxxx, (b) xxxxxxxxxx, and (c)xxxxxxxxxxx.
    • Seriation of separate paragraphs (itemized conclusions or steps) - Begin with paragraph indent, number each paragraph with an arabic numeral, and type second and succeeding lines flush left, followed by a period.
    • Use comma between elements (including before and and or) in a series of three or more items.
  • Short Quotations
    • Quotations of fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text and enclosed by double quotation marks.
  • Long Quotations
    • Display quotations of 40 or more words in a double spaced block of lines with no quotation marks. Indent block 1/2 in.



For further information, consult the following publication:

Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). (2001). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.