URC

The Influence of Media Marketing on Adolescent Girls

Erica Laurén Sanders
The Master's College


Abstract

Current research suggests that “mass media (TV, movies, magazines, internet) pervade the everyday lives of people living in Western societies, and undoubtedly one of the effects of such media saturation is the pervasive transmission of societal beauty ideals” (Tiggemann, 2006, para. 2). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of media marketing on adolescent girls from the ages of 16-19. The survey instrument was distributed to students who were enrolled at the Academy of the Canyons located in Santa Clarita, California, during the spring of 2007. STATPAK was employed to examine the data, and the One-Dimensional Chi-square test was used for data analysis. The findings of the study yielded some significant results. The conclusions of this research suggest that media marketing does influence adolescent girls more than adolescent girls may be aware.

Introduction

The ability of media marketing to affect adolescents today has evolved through many different means. Digital editing has created a false world that is impossible to achieve. Celebrities, good or bad, have been made “role-models” and are presented as people that should be emulated. Media marketing has taken a negative toll on many aspects of adolescent lives. It is entwined with entertainment, fashion, and music, making it almost impossible to differentiate reality from fantasy. Teen-age girls who viewed commercials depicting women who modeled the unrealistically thin-ideal type of beauty caused adolescent girls to feel less confident, angrier, and more dissatisfied with their weight and appearance (Hargreaves, 2002, p. 287). According to the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, sociocultural norms for ideal appearance lead women to base their self-worth more strongly on appearance than on character. This study focused on the effects that media marketing has on influencing adolescent girls’ lives.

Media’s Effect on Body Image

The popular media has increasingly held up a thinner and thinner body (and now ever more physically fit) image as the ideal for women (National Institute on Media and the Family, 2002, p. 1). In a study of fifth graders, ten-year-old girls and boys told researchers they were dissatisfied with their own bodies after watching a music video by Britney Spears or a clip from the TV show "Friends" (Mundell, 2002, p. 1). A 1996 study found that the amount of time an adolescent watches soaps, movies, and music videos is associated with their degree of body dissatisfaction and desire to be thin (Tiggemann & Pickering, 1996, p. 1). Adolescents are affected by role models that are set before them; whether the outlet be magazine models, celebrity influence and gossip, or music videos, teenage girls try to emulate them.

Nancy Signorielli, professor of communications at the University of Delaware, examined the types of media most often viewed by adolescent girls: television, commercials, films, music videos, magazines, and advertisements. Although the study did find positive role models of women and girls using their intelligence and acting independently, the media also presented an overwhelming message that girls and women were concerned with romance and dating (and, it follows, how they look), while men were focused on their occupations (Signorielli, 1997, p. 6).

Cutting Girls Down to Pant Size

Adolescent girls have become a prime target because they are new and inexperienced consumers. They are in the process of learning their values and roles and developing their self-concepts (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 129). Advertisers are aware of their role and do not hesitate to take advantage of the insecurities and anxieties of young people, usually in the guise of offering solutions (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 129). A cigarette provides a symbol of independence, while a pair of designer jeans or sneakers convey status and the right perfume or beer resolves doubts about femininity or masculinity (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 129). All adolescents are susceptible to these messages that are pushed heavily by advertisers.

Marketing strategies and advertising become strategic in the battle for consumers. Studies at Stanford University and the University of Massachusetts found that about seventy percent of college women say they feel worse about their own looks after reading women’s magazines (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 133). Not only are girls influenced by images of other girls but they are especially attuned to images of women, because they learn from these images what is expected of them, what they are to become (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 138). Expectations put upon adolescent girls are promoted for the sole purpose of making money.

Media Effects on Sexual Purity

The mass media is an increasingly accessible way for people to learn about and see sexual behavior (Brown, 2002, p. 1). In the United States, young people spend six to seven hours each day on average with some form of media (Brown, 2002, p. 1). According to one national survey of young people (10-17 years old) who regularly used the Internet, one out of four said he or she had encountered unwanted pornography in the past year. And one out of five had been exposed to unwanted sexual solicitations or approaches (Finkelhor, Mitchell, & Wolak, 2000, p. 1). More than half of the high school boys and girls in a national survey in 1997 said they had learned about birth control, contraception, or preventing pregnancy from television; almost two thirds (63%) of the girls (and 40% of the boys) said they had learned about these topics from magazines (Sutton, Brown, Wilson, & Klein, 2002, p. 25). Emerging studies address how the media play an important role in how audiences—especially young people—select, interpret, and apply sexual content (Steele, 1999, p. 331).

Content analyses suggest that media audiences are most likely to learn that sex is consequence-free, rarely planned, and more a matter of lust than love (Kunkel et al., 1999, p. 1). One qualitative study found three patterns of sexual media use among early adolescent girls (11-15 years old) that suggested that sexual portrayals in the media influenced girls who were more interested in learning about relationship norms, strategies for establishing relationships, and tips on how to be sexually attractive (Brown, 2002, p. 2). Some girls still found depictions of sex in the media (e.g., nudity in advertisements) "gross" and "disgusting," while other girls had papered their walls with images of media models they lusted after or aspired to be (Brown, 2002, p. 2). Mass media influences adolescent girls starting at very early ages through different outlets in the area of sexuality.

Media’s Agenda Setting and Framing

Media are in a unique position to get people thinking and talking about specific issues, while keeping other issues from the public eye (Brown, 2002, p. 3). Agenda setting and framing theories propose that the media tell people both what is important in the world around them and how to think about the events and people who inhabit that world (Kosicki, 1993, p. 43). People use the stories they see both in the news and in entertainment media as reference points about what's important and to compare what they already know, or think they know, about what's good and bad and what should be done about problems (Brown, 2002, p. 4). The result often reinforces stereotypes and helps define what is considered appropriate and inappropriate behavior in the culture (Iyengar, 1991, p. 1).

Definition of Sexy

Seductive images of models in ads, music, and videos showing girls dancing in skirts the size of belts and even video game heroines flaunting skimpy outfits are considered a cultural norm in today’s twenty-first century lifestyle (Khidelkel, 2008, p. 153). According to a cosmogirl.com poll, 81 percent of their readers feel bombarded with sex and sexy images in the media, and 85 percent think there’s more sex in the media now than in their youth (Khidelkel, 2008, p. 153). A recent Newsweek poll found that 84 percent of American adults say sex plays a bigger role in popular culture than it did 20 or 30 years ago. Celebrities and models who set the unspoken standard for adolescents have promoted the need for girls to look sexy. In 2007, the American Psychological Association released a report concluding that girls exposed to sexualized images from a young age are more prone to three of the most common mental health problems for girls and women: depression, eating disorders, and low self-esteem (Khidelkel, 2008, p. 155).

Damages by a Sex-Obsessed Culture

Sexiness is not only defined by how a person looks but it has infiltrated many different other parts of everyday life. “Today, American girls are forced to navigate a minefield more challenging, difficult, and pressure-filled than ever before when it comes to one vital topic: sex” (Liebau, 2007, pg. 3). “Lyrics to popular music contain unspeakably coarse and often derogatory references to sex in general, and to women in particular—and young girls sing along without a second thought” (Liebau, 2007, p. 3). Pornography has become more socially accepted and often pops up, unbidden, on the Internet (Liebau, 2007, p. 4). Stores such as Victoria’s Secret and restaurants like Hooters capitalize on an implicit message that being sexy at all times is a female imperative (Liebau, 2007, p. 4). Over the last forty years the United Sates has indeed experienced an incremental but aggressive sexualizing of its culture—until today there exists a status quo in which almost everything seems focused on what’s going on below the waist (Liebau, 2007, p. 5). “Gossip sheets report that many of the celebrities idolized by adolescent girls are wearing clothes and engaging in behavior so vulgar that it once would have destroyed their careers” (Liebau, 2007, p. 3). Adolescent girls standing only at the threshold of adolescence are forced to absorb information, confront issues, and handle situations that, in past generations, would have presented themselves much later in their lives, if at all” (Liebau, 2007, p. 7).

A Purposed Focus on Individualism

“The American tradition of individual responsibility and promise has been perverted to an extreme form of isolated individualism, an individualism no longer connected with active citizenship and community participation” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 294). There is now confusion between heroic individuality, which makes possible a greater social freedom, with anarchic individuality, which is ruthless, narcissistic, amoral, and dangerous (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 294). Advertising’s point of view is always and necessarily extremely individualistic, giving the basic message that all an individual needs to fix a problem is a product that can be bought. Consumers are constantly told by advertising that the use of the right product with a mix of individual acts will produce the solution to the problem. For example, the alcohol and tobacco industries will both focus on the individual as much as possible because a focus on the environment inevitably leads to corporate accountability and restrictions (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 301).

Media’s Effect on Language

There has been a gradual but dramatic shift in the sexual overtones even in daily speech. “Once slut was one of the most derogatory and insulting epithets that could be hurled at any woman—accusing her, in effect, of lacking the self-respect to be discriminating in bestowing sexual favors” (Liebau, 2007, p. 12). In today’s world, however, both the term itself and the sexual promiscuity it signifies are embraced—as a headline in Salon.com urged, “Be a slut! Be a slut! Be a slut” (Shamburg, 2001, p. 1)! Sexuality has also infiltrated the American vocabulary. “The word sucks—as in something or someone sucks—frequently is used by the most affluent and educated—locates its origin in oral sex” (Liebau, 2007, p. 7). As Lee Siegel pointed out in The New Republic, “Considering how many times ‘sucks’ is used in print, in conversation, and online now, the entire country is evoking the act of fellatio on a continuous basis” (Siegel, 2006, p. 1).

Key Celebrity Players’ Influence on Culture

Living in an overly sexualized culture takes a very real toll on girls (Liebau, 2007, p. 8). The emphasis on sexiness, revealing fashions, and the overvaluing of physical appeal creates pressure to measure up to bone-slim models or celebrities and leads to unrealistic expectations among young women about how their own bodies should actually look (Liebau, 2007, p. 8). Today’s culture celebrates celebrities such Paris Hilton and highlights their “high-profile party lives” along with their scandalous lifestyles in general (Liebau, 2007, p. 7). Hit song “My Humps” by Fergie extols the sexual magnetism of her breast and buttocks; however, despite this fact, it can be heard in almost every high school gym during warm ups and can be found on millions of teenagers’ iPods (Liebau, 2007, p. 7).

“Fashion sensation Tom Ford asked gossip columnist Liz Smith, ‘What’s wrong with sluts? If sluttiness is what you lie, what’s wrong with that? Why do we think being a slut’s bad? Sluttiness is just a lot of freedom’” (Smith, 2004, p. 1). “Not surprisingly, even young girls have come to embrace the concept—to the point that the epithet has become a widely accepted, affectionate term of familiarity among girlfriends” (Rosenbloom, 2006, p. 1).

Influence of Advertising

Most people do not think that advertising has any influence on them. This is what advertisers want the general population to believe; however, if that were true, why would companies spend over $200 billion a year on advertising (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 33)? Why would companies be willing to spend over $250,000 to produce an average television commercial and another $250,000 to air it (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 34)? The Oscar ceremony, known as the Superbowl for women, is able to command one million dollars for a thirty-second spot because it can deliver over sixty percent of the nation’s women to advertisers (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 34). “Make no mistake: The primary purpose of the mass media is to sell audiences to advertisers” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 35).

Advertising is the most important aspect of the mass media and is a multi-billion dollar business (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 35). Reports conclude that advertising supports more than sixty percent of magazine and newspaper production and almost one hundred percent of the electronic media (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 34). “Over $40 billion a year in ad revenue is generated for television and radio and over $30 billion for magazines and newspapers” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 35). From the media’s point of view, television and radio programs are simply fillers for the space between commercials.

Self-censorship in Advertising

Self-censorship in advertising is seen the most in women’s and girl’s magazines (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 50). “Advertising’s influence on media content is exerted in two major ways: via the suppression of information that would harm or ‘offend the sponsor’ and via the inclusion of editorial content that is advertiser-friendly and that creates an environment in which the ads look good” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 49). The priority of not offending the sponsors offsets the importance of delivering the true picture of reality. For example, the editor of New Woman magazine in Australia resigned because advertisers complained about the publication’s use of a heavy set cover girl, even though letters had poured in from grateful readers (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 51). According to Advertising Age International, her departure “made clear the influence wielded by advertisers who remain convinced that only thin models spur sales of beauty products” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 51).

“One prevalent form of censorship in the mass media is the almost complete invisibility, the eradication, of real women’s faces and bodies” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 51). Women’s magazines so often have covers that feature luscious cakes and pies juxtaposed with articles about diets. “85 Ways to Lose Weight,” Woman’s Day tells us—but probably one of them is not the “10-minute ice cream pie” on the cover (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 51). “This is an invitation to pathology, fueling the paradoxical obsession with food and weight control that is one of the hallmarks of eating disorders” (Kilbourne, 1999, p. 51).

Method

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of media marketing on adolescent girls from the ages of 13-19. The following questions were explored:

  1. Are adolescent girls influenced by the media?
  2. What influences do celebrities have on adolescent girls?

Method of Data Collection

The survey instrument used in this study determined the impact of media marketing on adolescent girls from the ages of 13-19. How the media and the different influences that celebrities have on adolescent girls influence adolescent girls were the two research questions. A personal data sheet requested demographic data in addition to the responses to the to eight survey questions. The survey instrument was distributed to female students who attend the Academy of the Canyons located in Santa Clarita, California. They received the instrument in person and returned the survey through the head teacher, Ms. Daren Hoisington.

Statistical Procedures

STATPAK was employed to examine the data; the desired scale of measurement was interval, because it is a scale of measurement in which “data can be placed in order with equal distance or quantity between each step on the measuring scale” (Joseph & Joseph, 1986, p. 57). The data were collected by the use of survey instruments composed of eight questions with responses based on the Likert scale. The One-Dimensional Chi-square statistical test was employed because it is “most often used with nominal data” (Joseph & Joseph, 1986, p. 182). A .05 level of significance was used to test the results of the study. Data retrieved from the demographic portion of the survey instrument were reported in statements and figures.

Results

The subjects sampled for this study were students enrolled at the Academy of the Canyons located in Santa Clarita, California. They completed the survey on March 19 and 21, 2008. Twenty-five copies of the survey instrument were distributed; twenty-five were returned, and twenty-five were used in this study. The data collected from the twenty-five subjects (Table 1) are discussed in subsequent sections, commencing with the reporting of the demographic findings. Participants were asked to list age to determine at what stage of adolescence they were. The survey indicated the results as follows: Age 19- 1, Age 18- 5, Age 17- 13, Age 16- 6.

Table 1. Summary of Responses to Survey Questions

Survey Question

Scale number

Total Responses

Computed Chi-square Value

Tabled Chi-square Value

Strongly Disagree

Disagree

Agree

Strongly Agree

No Response

1

1

2

11

11

0

25

14.5200

7.815

2

1

2

8

15

0

25

19.2308

7.815

3

1

6

10

8

0

25

7.1600

7.815

4

2

5

5

13

0

25

10.6800

7.815

5

8

9

7

1

0

25

6.200

7.815

6

1

4

15

8

0

25

3.9600

7.815

7

1

4

15

8

0

25

3.9600

7.815

8

3

5

12

8

0

25

2.3600

7.815

Research Question One

Are adolescent girls influenced by the media? Questions 1,2, 3, and 4 of the survey located in Appendix A addressed this research question.

The results of the analysis revealed that the calculated value for questions 1, 2 and 4 were at the .05 significance level and suggested that the media puts pressure on adolescent girls to lose weight through popular fashion magazines. Question 3 indicated that the sample did not shop for trendy clothes that paralleled with fashion magazines.

The findings from question one align with Mundell (p. 1) whose results show from a study on fifth graders, ten-year-old girls and boys told researchers they were dissatisfied with their own bodies after watching a music video by Britney Spears or a clip from the TV show "Friends." Tiggemann & Pickering (p. 1) divulge a study done in 1996 that found that the amount of time an adolescent watches soaps, movies and music videos is associated with their degree of body dissatisfaction and desire to be thin. The National Institute on Media and the Family (p. 1) discloses that the popular media has increasingly held up a thinner and thinner body (and now ever more physically fit) image as the ideal for women.

The findings from question two align with the findings of Kilbourne (p. 132) who said that the images in magazines play into the American belief of transformation and ever-new possibilities. Marketing strategies and advertising then become strategic in the battle of consumers. Kilbourne (p. 133) collected the results of studies at Stanford University and the University of Massachusetts that found that about seventy percent of college women say they feel worse about their own looks after reading women’s magazines. Kilbourne (p. 138) revealed that not only are girls influenced by images of other girls, but they are especially attuned to images of women, because they learn from these images what is expected of them, what they are to become.

The finding from questions three conflicts with research by Liebau (p. 4) that revealed that stores such as Victoria’s Secret and restaurants like Hooters capitalized on an implicit message that being sexy at all times is a female imperative. In contrast to this finding, Liebau (p. 4) reported that over the last forty years the United Sates has indeed experienced an incremental but aggressive sexualizing of its culture—until today there exists a status quo in which almost everything seems focused on what’s going on below the waist.

The finding from question four aligns with the findings of Sutton, Brown, Wilson, & Klein (p. 25) that more than half of the high school boys and girls in a national survey in 1997 said they had learned about birth control, contraception, or preventing pregnancy from television. In the studies of Brown (p. 1), in the United States, young people spend six to seven hours each day on average with some form of media. Kilbourne’s data (p. 35) revealed that over $40 billion a year in ad revenue is generated for television and radio and over $30 billion for magazines and newspapers.

Research Question Two

What influences do celebrities have on adolescent girls? Questions 5, 6, 7, and 8 of the survey located in Appendix A addressed this research question.

The results of the analysis revealed that the calculated values for all were not at the .05 significance level, which suggest that the participants feel that celebrities do not influence their lives. The results also suggested that some adolescent girls have extreme opinions about celebrities. Some embrace celebrities as role models and others despise them, having repulsive opinions about their lifestyles. Regardless of the extreme position, media marketing of celebrities has influenced both sides. Most people are not aware of how much celebrities influence decisions made about the simplest things—clothes, perfumes, candy, or choice of stores. Advertising influences the population beyond its knowledge. Companies spend billions of dollars every year studying the population and consumer interests. The general population desires to be accepted by its peers. The media provides an outlet for this through advertising, using celebrities to give credibility to certain products.

The findings from question five conflict with research by Smith (p. 1), who stated that fashion sensation Tom Ford asked gossip columnist Liz Smith, “What’s wrong with sluts? If sluttiness is what [defines who] you are, what’s wrong with that? Why do we think being a slut’s bad? Sluttiness is just a lot of freedom.” Rosenbloom (p. 1) confirmed celebrities’ influence with research that reflected that even young girls have come to embrace the concept—to the point that the epithet has become a widely accepted, affectionate term of familiarity among girlfriends.

The findings from question six differ from research by Liebau (p. 7), who stated that hit song “My Humps” by Fergie, which extols the sexual magnetism of her breast and buttocks, can be heard in almost every high school gym during warm ups and can be found on millions of teenagers iPods. According to studies by Liebau (p. 8), the emphasis on sexiness, revealing fashions, and the overvaluing of physical appeal creates pressure to measure up to bone-slim models or celebrities and leads to unrealistic expectations among young women about how their own bodies should actually look.

The findings from question seven suggest that they are not curious about celebrities’ personal lives. These findings differ from research conducted by Liebau (p. 8), who stated that today’s culture celebrates celebrities such as Paris Hilton and highlights their “high-profile party lives” along with their scandalous lifestyles in general. Liebau’s (p. 6) research revealed gossip sheets that report many of the celebrities idolized by adolescent girls are wearing clothes and engaging in behavior so vulgar that it once would have destroyed their careers.

The findings from question eight suggest that they do not buy products, clothing lines, or perfumes that are endorsed or designed by celebrities. In contrast, studies by Liebau (p. 8) showed that emphasis on sexiness, revealing fashions, and the overvaluing of physical appeal creates pressure to measure up to bone-slim models or celebrities and leads to unrealistic expectations among young women about how their own bodies should actually look.

Findings

The research questions were analyzed using STATPAK. The One–Dimensional Chi-square statistical test was employed because it “analyzes the discrepancy, if any, between frequencies observed in the sample of subjects measured and frequencies expected according to the stated hypothesis” (Joseph & Joseph, 1986, p. 182). Nominal data were assumed, which can be identified by “a number, a name, a symbol of some type, a letter, or any device that indicates the various categories” (Joseph & Joseph, 1986, p. 54). The tables located in the appendix of Research Methods in Human Development were utilized to compare the calculated values derived from the statistical analysis of the research questions with their respective tabled values. A .05 level of significance was used to test the results of the study. Analysis of the data follows.

Discussion

Within the stated purpose and findings of this study, the following conclusions appear warranted:

  1. Adolescent girls are influenced by the media in more ways than they may be aware.
  2. Celebrities influence adolescent girls in opposite ways, either inviting a repulsive reaction or creating a star status view.

The findings of the study yielded some significant results. The majority of the responses indicated that the participants either strongly agreed, or strongly disagreed, that media marketing, whether through tangible means (magazines or television programs) or through celebrity influence, had an effect on their lives. The surveyed adolescent girls had strong opinions that either sided with the hypothesis that media marketing did influence them or the opposite. Media marketing has infiltrated every part of an adolescent girl’s life, whether it be the way she dresses, how she styles her hair that morning, how she speaks to her friends, the way she respects her parents, expectations within a boyfriend relationship, or the music she listens to. Media marketing plays an active role in influencing what is “fashionably cool” and what is “in” and “out” of style. No matter what the opinion of adolescent girls is, the media impacts their lives in a multitude of ways.

Celebrities are just one outlet for the media to push their agenda to the public. The system of advertising expertly entices adolescent girls by using celebrities to push fashion products or even political opinion. Each person emulates something. Everybody influences someone else, either negatively or positively. The media’s main concern is making money. Unfortunately, media marketing’s main concern is not influencing its consumers for the greater good of society but rather selling products that the population will like and want to emulate or buy. Whether adolescent girls choose to accept the fact that media marketing influences them, it will remain a constant factor in their lifestyle and how they interact with society.

Limitations of the Study

Several limitations to this study existed. The sample population consisted of students specifically the Santa Clarita Valley school system and the teenagers from the Grace Community Church high school department during the spring semester of 2008. Although the findings for this study pertain mainly to adolescent girls residing in Los Angeles County, a general trend may be observed and conclusions drawn.

Recommendations for Further Study

This study provides some information regarding the influences that media marketing has on adolescent girls. Additional questions pertaining to how the media positively (and negatively) influences the population should be researched in order for a more accurate result to occur; thus, the following recommendations for further research and study are offered:

  1. This study should be replicated by using a more diverse population to determine a more accurate opinion of the adolescent girl population.
  2. A study should be conducted to determine whether or not the media has more of a positive influence on the population than a negative one.
  3. Further study on the influence of advertising and subconscious marketing on adolescent s should be conducted to add more depth to concurrent research.

References

Brown, Jane D. (2002). Mass media influences on sexuality.Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2372/is_1_39/ai_87080439.

Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K., & Wolak, J. (2000). Online victimization: A report on the nation's youth. Washington, DC.: National Center for Missing and Exploited Children.

Hargreaves, D. (2002). Idealized women in TV ads make girls feel bad. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21, 287-308.

Iyengar, S. (1991). Is anyone responsible? How television frames political issues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Joseph, M.L., & Joseph, W.D., (1986). Research fundamentals in home economics. Redondo Beach Plycon. (p. 10).

Kilbourne, J. (1999). Can’t buy my love. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Khidekel, M. (2008). What is sexy? Cosmo girl ma gazine , (p. 153-156).

Kosicki, G. (1993). Problems and opportunities in agenda-setting research. Journal of

Communication , 43, 100-127.

Kunkel, D., Cope, K., Farinola, W., Biely, E., Rollin, E., & Donnerstein, E. (1999). Sex on TE.' A biennial report to the Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001. Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation.

Liebau, C. P. (2007). Prude: How the sex obsessed culture damages girls. Boston, MA: Center Street Publishing.

Mundell, E. (2002). Sitcoms, videos make even fifth-graders feel fat. Reuters Health.

National Institute on Media and the Family. (2002) Retrieved March 12, 2008, from http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_mediaeffect.shtml.

Rosenbloom, S. “The taming of the slur.” New York Times. July 13, 2006.

Siegel, L. “Against ‘sucks.’” New Republic Online, April 28, 2006, accessed at http://cache-origin.eonline.com/News/Items/0,1,9343,00.html.

Signorielli, N. (1997). Reflections of girls in the media: A two-part study on gender and media. Kaiser Family foundation and Children NOW.

Shamburg, R. (2001). “Be a slut! Be a slut! Be a slut!” Salon.com. Retrieved March 23, 2008. www.cbc.ca/consumers/market/files/money/sexy.

Smith, L. (2004). Fabulous Tom Ford tells all. New York Post. Retrieved March 23, 2008.

Steele, J. R. (1999). Teenage sexuality and media practice: Factoring in the influences of family, friends and school. The Journal of Sex Research, 36, 331-341.

Sutton, M. J., Brown, J. D., Wilson, K. M., & Klein, J. D. (2002). Shaking the tree of knowledge for forbidden fruit: Where adolescents learn about sexuality and contraception. In J. D. Tiggemann, Marika (2006). The role of media exposure in adolescent girls’ body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness: Prospective results.  Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology25(5), 523-541.  Retrieved February 12, 2008, from Psychology Module database. (Document ID: 1060410481).

Tiggemann, M., and Pickering, A. S. (1996). Role of television in adolescent women's body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 20, 199-203. USA Today, (1996, August 12). (p. 1)


Appendix

The Influence of Media Marketing on Adolescent Girls

This survey is being conducted by Erica Sanders, a sophomore Home Economics-Family & Consumer Sciences student at The Master’s College.

Current research suggests that “mass media (TV, movies, magazines, internet) pervade the everyday lives of people living in Western societies, and undoubtedly one of the effects of such media saturation is the pervasive transmission of societal beauty ideals” (Tiggemann, 2006, para. 2).

This study was developed to discover what contributes to sibling rivalry and whether it is affected in any way by working mothers.

Demographics

Age:________

School:_____________________________________________________

Survey Questions

1 [strongly disagree] 2 [disagree] 3 [agree] 4 [strongly agree]

1  2  3  4     1. I have felt pressure to lose weight.

1  2  3  4     2. I have read fashion magazines (for example: Vogue, People, In Style, California Style, Teen Vogue) in the past 12 months.

1  2  3  4     3. I shop and buy things that are trendy.

1  2  3  4     4. I watch media-driven television programs [Reality T.V. MTV, VH1, etc.].

1  2  3  4     5. Celebrity gossip is a topic of conversation in my life.

1  2  3  4     6. I am aware of the leading celebrity stars right now [Paris Hilton, Angelina Jolie…].

1  2  3  4     7. I am interested in the personal lives of celebrities [Pregnancies, births, what movies they’re in…].

1  2  3  4     8. I have bought a perfume, clothing line, or product that a celebrity has endorsed or designed [for example: Candy by Paris Hilton, clothing line by Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, With Love perfume by Hilary Duff].


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