URC

Development of High Nutritive, Low-Fat, Plant-Enhanced Beef Patties

Sumiyo Ino
Texas A & M University—Kingsville


Abstract

High nutritive, low-fat, plant-enhanced beef patties have been developed in order to improve people’s health. Four patty types were made: standard, squash, blueberry, and carrot. The three methods used to evaluate the patties were flavor acceptability, nutritional analysis, and shrinkage analysis. A panel of eight randomly selected students determined experimental flavor acceptability. The patty containing carrots was judged the most flavorful and nutrient dense, but further  modifications to improve texture are needed. Use of the carrot patty in the school lunch programs and university food services has the most potential to impact people's long-term health.   

Introduction and Purpose of Study

            Western people consume foods such as meat that are high in fat, and Forman (2000) concludes: “ Western populations should reduce their intake of red meat.” The consumption of meat high in fat content increases the risk of serious health problems. “The prevalence of obesity has increased by more than 75 percent since 1980. The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents had more than doubled since 1976”(Yanovski & Yanovski, 2002). Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are obesity-associated diseases. “If this epidemic cannot be averted, its full public health effect will be felt as affected children become adults and the long-term complications of diabetes develop” (Rocchini, 2002). Because of the dramatic increase in childhood and young adult overweight and obesity, it is important to create flavorful, lower calorie, high nutrient dense food. 

In this experimental foods research project, high nutritive, low-fat, plant-enhanced beef patties were developed as an alternative to 100 % ground beef patties. “Soy and soy foods contain high protein, and soy protein is essentially equivalent in quality to animal proteins”(Margen, 1992). According to the Food and Drug Administration, “25 grams of soy protein a day, as part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may reduce the risk of heat disease”(Pszczola, 2000). Soy products have been promoted as health beneficial foods because they contain isoflavones, which are phytoestrogens. “Phytoestrogens have a wide range of health effects, including reduction of the risk of heart disease”(Escott-Stump & Mahan, 1999).

            To increase nutrient content and fiber in the patties, yellow squash, carrots, and blueberries were added. “A diet high in fiber aids weight control and reduces the risk of developing obesity”(Wardlaw, 1999). Yellow squash, carrots, and blueberries contain phytochemicals such as lutein, b-carotenes, and anthocyanin. Lutein and beta-carotene are carotenoids, and they are antioxidants. “ Carotenoids are hydrophobic molecules, whose absorption pathway closely follows that of lipids”(Tyssandier, Cardinault, Caris-Veyrat, Amiot, Grolier, & Bouteloup., 2002). Fat in meat helps to absorb the carotenoids. Anthocyanins are flavonoids, and “they have been shown to reduce the risk of heart disease by acting as antioxidants to protect LDL cholesterol from oxidation”(Escott-Stump & Mahan, 1999). Therefore, the purpose of this experimental study was to develop a plant-enhanced beef patty that would appeal to students while being lower in fat and caloric content and containing fiber and phytochemicals.

Method

            In order to decrease fat and caloric content and to increase nutrient and fiber content, the following adaptations were made to the standard recipe selected by the researcher. The standard recipe contained ground beef (20% fat) 57 g, tofu 57 g, salt 0.25 g, and pepper 0.25 g. The amount of beef in the standard recipe was decreased to 28.5 g. Yellow squash, blueberries or carrots were substituted for 28.5 g of beef in each of the three experimental patty types. 

            Three patties of each recipe-type were made. All ingredients were weighed on an electric scale, prepared, and then combined. The tofu and washed blueberries were slightly mashed. The yellow squash and carrots were washed and grated. The ingredients were hand-mixed together. After mixing, the patties were formed using a round template 7.5 cm in diameter. Each shaped patty weighed 114 g. The patties were placed in a flat metal baking pan with edges 1.5 cm high. The pan was lined with heavy-duty aluminum foil in order to catch the juices. The patties were baked in an electric oven at 350 °F for 20 minutes. 

            Three methods were used to evaluate the patties: flavor acceptability, nutrient analysis, and shrinkage analysis by volume and size. Juice samples were collected and measured by the milliliter. Flavor acceptability was determined using a nine-point hedonic rating scale as described in McWilliams (2001). Scale choices ranged from “like extremely” as a nine to “dislike extremely” as a one. Five indicated “neither like nor dislike.0. A tasting panel of eight students was randomly selected to evaluate flavor acceptability. Nutrient analysis was done using the Nutrient Composition of Food Tables (Grosvenor & Smolin, 2002). 

Results

The baked patties were cut into eight sections, and one of each type was placed on paper plates. The plates were divided into four sections and labeled A, B, C, and D. Taste panelists were given the hedonic rating scale and asked to determine level of taste acceptability. Specific patty types were not identified. After each patty tasting, the panelists drank water at room temperature to clear their palates and recorded their scores. A mean score was tabulated for each patty type.

Mean flavor acceptability scores were as follows: carrot (5.4), standard (4.8), blueberry (4.1), and squash (2.4). Overall, the carrot patty had the highest flavor acceptability. However, personal preferences affected the results as shown by the scores in Table 1. For example, Respondent 1 doesn’t like carrots and gave the lowest points to the carrot patty. On the other hand, Respondent 3 likes carrots and gave the highest rating to the carrot patty. After the test, all respondents said they didn’t like squash, and, consequently, rated that patty lowest. 

Table 1 - Flavor Acceptability Scores by Patty-type

Respondent     

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Mean

Scores

Standard

Squash  

Blueberry 

Carrot 

 

5

2

3

2

 

6

2

1

3

 

7

1

2

8

 

4

2

6

7

 

5

6

6

8

 

7

3

8

8

 

2

2

6

6

 

2

1

1

1

 

4.8

2.4

4.1

5.4

 Note. Eight students were randomly selected. Scale choices ranged “like extremely” as 9 to “dislike extremely” as 1.

Several respondents noted that the warm orange color of the carrot patty was appealing. Conversely, the color of the purple blueberry patty was not appealing to the respondents.

The standard patty contained 210 kcal and 14 g fat. The three experimental patties contained calorie amounts as follows: blueberry (143), carrot (139) and squash (133). Each of those patties contained 9 g fat. Protein gram amounts varied and were as follows: standard (21), carrot (14), and blueberry and squash (13). Each of the experimental patties contained more fiber than the standard patty. Fiber gram amounts were as follows: standard (0.2), squash (0.7), and blueberry and carrot (1.0). Vitamin A amounts varied and were as follows: standard (0.5), squash (6.1), blueberry (3.2) and carrot (789.5). Vitamin C milligram amounts were as follows: standard (0), carrot (3), and squash and blueberry (4). The lutein microgram amount in squash was 336 according to vegetables/fruits lutein content (Island News, 2002). Anthocyanin milligram amount for the blueberry patty was 67.5 (Prior, 2000).

            Juices collected from each patty type were measured in a graduated cylinder. The milliliter amounts of juice and fat from each sample were standard (18.36; 4.67), squash (22.33; 1.33), blueberry (17.67; 0.33), and carrot (17.63; 0.33).

The standard, which had more meat than the other three, had the most fat. The squash patty yielded the most juice.

The diameter of each sample decreased during the baking process. The mean centimeters in diameter difference between the unbaked and baked patties were standard (1.33), squash (0.77), blueberry (0.67), and carrot (0.60). 

The standard patty shrunk the most, and the blueberry and carrot shrunk the least. The experimental patties didn’t shrink as much as the standard patty did because they contained less fat that baked out of the beef patty. 

Discussion and Summary

            None of the respondents were familiar with the taste and the texture of tofu. Only 0.25 g of salt and pepper were added. Respondents may typically add more seasoning to their beef patties. This may explain the overall low flavor acceptability ratings of all of the patties types. Also, respondents didn’t like squash, which may explain the low flavor acceptability rating of the squash patty. 

Substitution of 28.5 g of fruits or vegetables for 28.5 g of ground beef reduced the caloric content by approximately 33 % in each patty. It made plant-enhanced beef patties healthier. However, because all samples lost moisture and fat content during baking, some dryness resulted affecting the texture and respondents’ flavor acceptability ratings. Perhaps shorter baking time would decrease the dryness.

The carrot patty received the highest flavor acceptability rating. The carrot patty rated the highest in vitamin A and fiber and the second highest in vitamin C and protein.  

The carrot patty has the most potential for manufacturing because of the highest rating on flavor acceptability, the highest nutritional values, and the least shrinkage. However, texture needs to be improved in order to be acceptable to consumers. This, high nutritive, low-fat, plant-enhanced beef patty has the potential to impact people’s long term-health.

References

Escott-Stump, S., & Mahan, L. K. (1999). Nutrition in cardio vascular disease. Krause’s food, nutrition, & diet therapy, 10, 275.  

Forman, D. (2002). Meat and cancer. The Lancet, 353(9154), 686.

Grosvenor. M. B., & Smolin, L. A. (2002). Nutrient composition of food. Nutrition from science to life. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College Publishers. 

Island News. (n.d.). Vegetable/fruits luten content. Retrieved May 14, 2002, from http://www.presenter.com/~generics/veg.htm

Margen, S. (1992). Vegetables. The wellness encyclopedia of food and nutrition, 60.

McWilliams, M. (2001). Sensory evaluation. Foods: Experimental perspectives, 4, 54. 

Prior, R. L. (2000). Antioxidant capacity and health benefits of fruits and vegetables: Blueberries, the leader of the pack. Retrieved May 15, 2002, from http://blueberry.org/tuft%27s.html

Pszczola, D. E.(2000). Ingredients. Food Technology, 54(9), 76.

Rocchini, A. P. (2002). Childhood obesity and a diabetes epidemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(11), 853-854.

Tyssandier, V., Cardinault, N., Caris-Veyrat, C., Amiot, M. J., Grolier, P., & Bouteloup, C. (2002). Vegetable-borne lutein, lycopene, and b-carotene compete for incorporation into chylomicrons, with no adverse effect on the medium-term (3-wk) plasma status of carotenoids in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 75(34), 526. 

Wardlaw, G. M. (1999). Expert opinion: A close look at soybeans. Perspectives in Nutrition, 4(91), 176-177.

Yanovski, S. Z., & Yanovski, J. A. (2002). Obesity. New England Journal of Medicine, 346(8), 591. 

 


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